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Lichenoid tissue reaction treatment

Lichenoid Reactions Registered Dental Hygienist

  1. Treatment and prognosis: The treatment of lichenoid reactions depends upon the offending agent. Sometimes, if the problem is due to a drug-associated lichenoid reaction, simply changing the patient to another medication may be all that is needed. This is never suggested without the consultation of the patient's physician
  2. Treatment options Lichenoid keratosis usually goes away on its own without the need for treatment. Your dermatologist may prescribe treatment for itching, stinging, and other symptoms with: topical..
  3. If a lichenoid eruption has developed to a drug, then it is quite possible for the same reaction to appear more quickly after exposure to another medication in the same family. Examples reported have included the proton pump inhibitors (for dyspepsia) and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (for high cholesterol)
  4. Interface dermatitis is characterized by inflammatory infiltration dermoepidermal junction and defined as lichenoid tissue reaction. This histopathological appearance and pathophysiological process are mainly observed in lichen planus, lichenoid drug reaction, lichenoid autoimmune connective tissue disease, lichenoid purpura and lichenoid granulomatosis dermatitis
  5. feel that the term lichenoid tissue reaction should be reserved for the cell-rich subset of interface dermatitis diseases such as lichen planus (that is, the designation lichenoid). However, the name lichenoid tissue reaction for this group of diseases remains in use. Thus
  6. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions comprise a group of disorders of the oral mucosa that likely represent a common reaction pattern to 1 or more unknown antigens. The coexistence of hyperkeratotic striation/reticulation, varying degrees of mucosal inflammation from mild erythema to severe wide

Lichenoid Keratosis: Treatment, Dermascopy, and Picture

Lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis skin diseases have traditionally been subdivided into those clinical disorders that display a high-density (cell-rich) inflammatory infiltrate and those that display a low-density (cell-poor) infiltrate (Romero et al., 1977; Sontheimer and Gilliam, 1981).Clinical examples of a cell-rich LTR include lichen planus and its variants. Lichenoid tissue reaction or interface dermatitis is some of the commonly encountered clinical and histological presentations in dermatology and pathology. The term interface dermatitis refers to the finding in a skin biopsy of an inflammatory infiltrate that abuts or obscures the dermo-epidermal junction

Dermatopathological findings in SLE include a lichenoid tissue reaction and a band of immunoglobulins at the dermo-epidermal junction (detected by direct immunofluorescence of clinically involved skin).. Dermatopathology of systemic lupus erythematosus This shows a dense perivascular and periadnexal lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate and interface changes with vacuolar degeneration of basal laye Lichenoid and granulomatous dermatitis: Points to ponder. By Kiran Motaparthi, MD. June 10, 2020. Vol. 2, No. 23. Clinical-pathologic correlation is the foundation of dermatologic diagnosis; often this is straightforward, but on occasion, getting to the precise diagnosis requires great thought and sleuthing Lichenoid eruptions are reported in association with anti-PDI (programmed death 1) therapy for various cancers. Drugs that commonly cause photo-LDE are thiazide diuretics, tetracycline, quinine and quinidine. Furosemide, sparfloxacin, ethambutol and clopidogrel have also been implicated

Lichenoid drug eruption DermNet N

Some treatments that may provide relief include: Corticosteroids in the form of mouthwashes, gels, ointments or powders, pills or injections Immune response medications like pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment applied directly to the affected area, or a systemic medication taken internall Spongiotic, Psoriasiform, and Lichenoid Dermatoses Laura E. K. Gifford Emily J. Osier Charlene W. Oldfield Judith V. Williams Alejandro A. Gru ATOPIC DERMATITIS Definition and Epidemiology Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition defined by pruritus.1 The most widely used diagnostic criteria specify that a patient must have pruritus with an eczematous dermatiti If your lichenoid mucositis is triggered by medication, it's more likely to show up as a single lesion instead of several lesions or sores. Diagnosis and Treatment for Lichenoid Mucositis. The most challenging aspect of treating this condition is identifying the cause. Oral lichenoid lesions are often mistaken as oral lichen planus Histologic examination reveals lichenoid interface dermatitis . This topic will discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of lichenoid drug eruptions. Lichen planus and other types of cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs are discussed separately. (See Lichen planus.

Acitretin for Hypertrophic Lichen Planus–Like Reaction in

Lichenoid tissue reaction (LTR) is characterised by epidermal basal cell damage which takes the form of liquefaction degeneration or cell death either apoptosis or necrosis with an associated cascade of histologic events in epidermis and dermis. LTR is found in clinical conditions with lichenoid poikilodermatous and pigmentary dermatoses Histologically, lichenoid drug reactions resemble lichen planus at low-power magnification. Clues that a lichenoid tissue reaction represents a lichenoid drug eruption include parakeratosis, diminished granular cell layer, and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, including plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils (Fig. 48-14)

A Rare Form of Lichenoid Tissue Reaction: Lichenoid

All 3 specimens from the head and neck showed primarily a spongiotic tissue reaction. In addition, however, the specimen from the left cheek showed patchy vacuolar change with occasional apoptotic cells and pigment incontinence, suggesting a lichenoid reaction pattern consistent with the clinical pattern seen the result was, lichenoid inflammation, negative for dysplasia. In October 2017 another cytology was positive for candida. In November of that year, a biopsy for buccal of #24 was done and the result was, lichenoid reaction. In March 2018, a biopsy of the upper right gingiva showed, lichenoid inflammation with atypia Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin. Spongiotic dermatitis involves fluid buildup in your skin. It's typically seen as red, itchy areas, and can occur anywhere on your body. We'll review.

There is no cure, but many different medications and procedures have been used in efforts to control the symptoms In terms of specifically for lichenoid reactions the main management includes topical and systemic corticosteroids [].The majority are able to be maintained on their anti-PD1 therapy (81%) and it was concluded that treatment can still be continued [].Furthermore, it has been reported that the majority respond well to topical steroids and holding immunotherapy may not be needed in contrast to.

Oral lichenoid contact reaction to cinnamon-containing products such as gums and candies can cause a hypersensitivity reaction termed cinnamon stomatitis. 1, 2, 3 The histology overlaps with oral. There have been many reports of congenital and acquired dermatoses that trail Blaschko lines. Lichen striatus is representative of an acquired cutaneous linear inflammatory dermatosis running along the lines of Blaschko, characterized histopathologically by the predominance of lichenoid infiltration. Adult blaschkitis, however, is considered under the same disease spectrum as lichen striatus. In 1973 Pinkus [] coined the term lichenoid tissue reaction to describe the histological pattern featuring damage to keratinocytes, now referred to as apoptosis, infiltrate of inflammatory cells in the connective tissue which may extend into the epithelium and keratosis or hyperkeratosis.He described this histopathological pattern common to several diseases referred to above rather than. Lichenoid dermatoses.potx 1. Lichenoid Dermatoses 2. Lichenoid Dermatoses They represent a heterogeneous inflammatory group of conditions that resemble idiopathic LP in terms of their clinical appearance and histological appearance demonstrating lichenoid tissue reaction characterized by; • Liquefaction degeneration of epidermal basal cells • Band-like infiltrate primarily lymphocytes in.

A lichenoid infiltrate without interface tissue reaction or cytologic atypia was observed. There were extravasated red blood cells and siderophages, along with fibrosis and exocytosis ( Fig 6 ). Similar to the previous cases, the T cell infiltrate was considered reactive based on the ratio of CD8:CD4 expression and retention of CD7 expression The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause Many of the responsible medications are also known for their ability to induce a lichenoid tissue reaction. Aminoquinoline antimalarials are currently the first line of therapy in cutaneous LE specific skin disease. Lichenoid tissue reactions are among the most common cutaneous side effects of aminoquinolone antimalarials connective tissue (Magnification X100). Discussion This report presented the challenge OLL case with a long-term course of observation and treatment. Although the patient had been Citation: Phattarataratip E, Dhanuthai K, Thongprasom K (2016) Carcinoma In situ arising in the Oral Lichenoid Lesion-An Unusual Case Report

Lichenoid Dermatitis with Eosinophils Treatment. Lichenoid dermatitis is an inflammatory dermatological condition that results in damage to the mucous membranes and inner layers of skin tissues such as dermis, and hair follicles. The disease takes its name from the appearance of the scaly rash that resembles lichens according to WebMD between 2011 and 2017 were reviewed. Inclusion required age of older than 18 years, a lichenoid tissue reaction, and insufficient abnormal dermal collagen to diagnose lichen sclerosus. Clinical and histopathologic data were collected and cases were categorized as hypertrophic, classic, or nonspecific lichenoid dermatosis. Descriptive statistics were performed and groups were compared with the. Lichenoid reactions should be evoked in the context of the introduction of a new treatment. The duration of onset of lichenoid lesions varies widely, ranging from 2 weeks to a few months. These lesions generally regress with the suppression of the cause sometimes leaving cheloid type scars in the oral mucosa A lichenoid drug eruption is a reaction to a medication. Some of the types of drugs that may trigger this condition include: anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine (Tegretol) or phenytoin.

Oral lichen planus: A disease or a spectrum of tissue

Lichenoid Contact Reactions, Oral Lichenoid Drug Reactions and Oral Lichenoid Lesions of Graft-Versus-Host Disease.[1] Each of the OLR is governed by different immunological mechanisms and is triggered by distinct causative factors, although the pathological process will result clinically similar reaction pattern Oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) refers to oral lichen planus (OLP) or oral lichenoid mucositis (OLM). Oral lichenoid mucositis could be one of three conditions, which include lichenoid contact stomatitis from dental restorative materials (OLM-dental), mucosal reaction to systemic drug administration (OLM-drug) and contac Pathology of immune-mediated tissue lesions following treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors overlying epidermal spongiosis and patchy necrotic keratinocytes are seen. Lichenoid dermatosis shows hyperkeratosis and hypergranulosis. More severe mucocutaneous skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal. The coexistence of hyperkeratotic striation/reticulation, varying degrees of mucosal inflammation from mild erythema to severe widespread ulceration, and a band-like infiltrate of mononuclear inflammatory cells including activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, are considered suggestive of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions We present a rare case of hypertrophic lichenoid dermatitis during treatment for non-small cell lung carcinoma with pembrolizumab. Hypertrophic lichenoid dermatitis during pembrolizumab treatment - Honda - - Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy - Wiley Online Librar

The term lichenoid tissue reaction was termed by Pinkus in 1973 to describe the histological pattern featuring damage to keratinocytes, now referred to as apoptosis, infiltrate of inflammatory cells in the connective tissue which may extend into the epithelium and keratosis or hyperkeratosis. [3 drug reaction -vacuolar to lichenoid interface change with •Treatment- clobetasol bid x 2 weeks to arms, hydrocortisone 2.5% ointment to face x 10 days, Bahrami S, Malone JC, Webb KG, Callen JP. Tissue Eosinophilia as an Indicator of Drug-Induced Cutaneous Small-Vessel Vasculitis. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(2).

Lichenoid Tissue Reaction/Interface Dermatitis: Clinical

  1. The clinical presentation and the initial skin biopsy findings were consistent with hypertrophic lichen planus. Our main concern was whether the multifocal epidermal hyperplasia associated with lichenoid inflammation was a harbinger of skin cancer, particularly as the reaction was localized to a long-standing burn scar
  2. Fig. 5. Post treatment clinical picture of right buccal mucosa . Modified World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs), oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) and oral lichen planus (OLP) has been proposed by Van de Meij et al. Histopathological changes are similar to oral lichen planus but it has been suggested that a mixed cell subepithelial infiltrate.
  3. The lichenoid tissue reaction leading to follicular destruction in these patients might be pathogenetically related to the events underlying androgenetic alopecia. ALOPECIA IN a pattern distribution is a common event associated with androgenetic hair loss and aging
  4. biopsies demonstrated a lichenoid tissue reaction with rare eosinophils. The histopathologic differential diagno-sis included lichen planus and lichenoid drug eruption, but the presence of eosinophils supported a diagnosis of a medication reaction. Clinically, this patient's presenta-tion is most consistent with photosensitive lichenoid

Lichenoid drug eruption is rare and can mimic idiopathic lichen planus and other dermatoses. Clonazepam, a commonly used drug for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and seizures, is known to be an unlikely cause of cutaneous adverse effects. Only one case report of LDE due to clonazepam has been reported. A 81-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease developed a lichenoid. INH Induced Lichenoid Eruptions Partha Pratim Chakraborty*, Prabodh Chandra Mondal** (1) (2) Figs. 1 and 2 : Brown black eruptions over dorsal aspects of palms and soles Fig. 3 (a and b) : Cutaneous histopathology suggesting lichenoid tissue reaction Fig. 4 : Morphologically similar lesions (like Fig. 1 and 2) over peri-oral regio

Lichenoid dermatitis definition, causes, pathology & treatmen

  1. The treatment of lichenoid drug reactions usually involves stopping of the culprit drug, but in the three cases described here, we felt the benefit of MK-3475 far outweighed the side effect of the rash. Treatment of lichenoid reactions can also include topical steroids
  2. lichenoid tissue reaction T. SHIOHARA, B.J.NICKOLOFF,* N.MORIYA, C.GOTOH AND (TNF-a) treatment of mice on the development of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and hchenoid tissue reaction (LTR) following the local injection of cloned autorcactive T cells. Both the DTH reaction and the LTR were significantly enhanced by pre
  3. Photosensitive lichenoid skin reaction is a rare skin manifestation of capecitabine and is reported twice in the dermatologic literature [ 4, 5 ]. In the reported cases, the rash appeared after the second or third cycle, usually in sun-exposed areas of the skin. Initially, the reaction manifests itself as a pruritic eruption, most commonly.
  4. utaneous reactions are among the most frequent side-effects of drug intake. They encompass a wide range of clinical patterns such as macular or maculopapular rashes, urticaria, eczematous or lichenoid lesions, fixed drug eruptions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis
  5. Lichenoid Keratosis Treatment. Treating lichenoid keratosis will usually begin with using a prescription medicated topical cream that contains corticosteroids as the main ingredient or covered with liquid nitrogen. When a person opts to use liquid nitrogen to remove the lichenoid keratosis it is called liquid nitrogen and curettage. During this.
  6. ologies have been used to describe this condition, as.
  7. Concerning skin reactions, psoriasis-like dystrophic skin lesions and psoriasis exacerbation or aggravation are labeled adverse drug reactions of metoprolol (1). Literature Two case reports of lichenoid drug eruptions likely caused by metoprolol have been published (6;7)

Connective tissue diseases DermNet N

Effect of replacement of resources would be spent on activities with no established ben- dental amalgam on oral lichenoid reactions. J Dent 24:41-45. efit. Under these circumstances, it seems reasonable to exploit Brown RS, Bottomley WK, Puente E, Lavigne GJ (1993) Lichenoid drug eruption, also known as drug-induced lichen planus, is an uncommon cutaneous adverse effect of several drugs. 1, 2 It is characterized by a symmetric eruption resembling lichen. Basal cells disappeared in areas of OLLs in this study, and common events in the lichenoid tissue reaction are speculated to include activation of dendritic cells and keratinocytes, and recruitment and activation of T cells, followed by cytotoxic damage to keratinocytes with release of keratinocyte antigens [26]

Lichenoid and granulomatous dermatitis: Points to ponde

(PDF) Lichenoid Tissue Reaction/Interface Dermatitis

Statin medications [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are generally used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Lichenoid drug eruptions are a potential cutaneous side effect of medications including antibiotics, antimalarials, and statins. This drug eruption can mimic features of idiopathic lichen planus in clinical presentation and pathology In these patients, the histological findings of early lesions are identical to those seen in lichen planopilaris. The lichenoid tissue reaction leading to follicular destruction in these patients might be pathogenetically related to the events underlying androgenetic alopecia Background: Oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) is a type IV cell-mediated immune response in the oral cavity. There is an established relationship between various dental materials and OLR, but few cases reports reported the occurrence of a lichenoid reaction in association with the use of a Hawley retainer Lichenoid dermatoses and tissue reactions are some of the most diverse clinical and histologic presentations in dermatology and pathology. The term interface dermatitis is sometimes used interchangeably. The prototypical lichenoid dermatitis is lichen planus. Yet, there are numerous diseases that have similar histology

Pathogenesis: Lichenoid tissue reactions, IFN, meds (TNF inhibitors), antibodies. Clinical Findings Lung Disease in DM Quality of Life in DM • Patient with pre- and post-treatment high resolution CTs had total resolution of interstitial opacities Morganroth et al, Arthritis Care & Res, in press . IL Study SAD Ch 18 Miscellaneous Skin Disease flashcards from Brittany Lancellotti's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition

Lichenoid Drug Eruptions - Dermatology Adviso

ular lesions from lichenoid reactions to dental amalgam.15 Lichenoid reactions to amalgam do not migrate, they occur on mucosal tissue in direct contact with the restoration, and they resolve once the amalgam restoration is removed.16 Some studies indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in patients with OLP lesions.17-20 This. Oral Lichenoid Reactions •Oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL's) are seen in direct topographic relationship to an offending agent •This reaction is most often attributable to dental restorative materials, most commonly amalgam •With the removal and replacement of the putative causative material, th Lichenoid keratosis treatment. Lichenoid keratosis is harmless and resolves spontaneously. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis, dermatoscopic digital images can be taken and used in follow-up a few months later. Lichenoid keratosis can be removed if desired by liquid nitrogen, electrosurgery or curettage

Oral Lichen Planus: Symptoms, Causes & Treatmen

Spongiotic, Psoriasiform, and Lichenoid Dermatoses

  1. INTRODUCTION: Lichenoid tissue reactions (LTR) are among the most frequently presenting clinical and histopathological conditions in dermatology.They represent a diverse group of conditions which are comparable to lichen planus (LP) clinically and histopathologically referred to as the lichenoid tissue reaction. 1 Histologically LTR are characterised by a inflammatory cell infiltrate obscuring.
  2. their treatment modalities.[1] Oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) is a TypeIV hypersensitivity reaction which is usually delayed and can take days or months or years to develop. [4] The most common dental restorative material to elicit such a chronic mucosal reaction is amalgam. Amalgam has been used as a restorative material for more than 150 years
  3. Oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) is a type IV cell-mediated immune response in the oral cavity. There is an established relationship between various dental materials and OLR, but few cases reports reported the occurrence of a lichenoid reaction in association with the use of a Hawley retainer. A female patient (twenty years of age) has been complaining of a reddish painful area on the tongue.
  4. For didactic purposes, an updated table of lichenoid drug reactions is proposed ( Table 1 ). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case on oral and vaginal lichenoid reactions due to mitotane. Mitotane is known to cause various skin rashes but no cases of oral or genital erosive eruption had been described
  5. Cutaneous graft-versus host disease: rationales and treatment options. Lichen striatus: a model for the histologic spectrum of lichenoid reactions. Lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis: clinical and histological perspectives. J Invest Dermatol, 129,.
  6. Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the oral mucosa, and presents itself in the form of lesions or rashes.. Cause of Lichen planus. The cause of lichen planus is not known; however, there are cases of lichen planus-type rashes (known as lichenoid reactions) occurring as allergic reactions to medications for high blood pressure, heart disease and arthritis

Lichenoid drug reaction is termed as a condition of the oral cavity having an identifiable etiology, which is clinically and histologically similar to oral lichen planus. A number of drugs have been described as a causative factor of those reactive lesions Lichenoid drug eruptions are usually ill-defined erythematous erosive lesions with a lichen-like hyperkeratosis, and in both lichen planus and lichenoid tissue reaction, the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells outnumber the CD4+ T helper cells on the background of a Th1 cytokine milieu [23] connective tissue but usually close to the epithelium-connective tissue junction. While in oral lichenoid reaction colloid bodies were mostly seen in lower spinous layer of epithelium. Conclusion: Colloid bodies can be used as one of the criteria to differentiate oral lichen planus from oral lichenoid reaction

Lind PO, Hurlen B, Lyberg T, Aas E. Amalgam-related oral lichenoid reaction. Scand J Dent Res 1986;94:448-51. 17. Pinkus H. Lichenoid tissue reactions. A speculative review of the clinical spectrum of epidermal basal cell damage with special reference to erythema dyschromicum persistans. Arch Dermatol 1973;107:840-6. 18 lichenoid tissue reaction (Table 1), were closely followed up without treatment; interestingly these patients were younger than the group with fully established LS (median age: 4.8 yr; range: 0.5-9.8 yr). Compared to fully developed LS this was mainly a histopathologic coincidence finding (88.9%); 77.8 lichenoid characteristics, as well as the handling and treatment of patients with these lesions. Oral lichenoid lesions related to contact with dental material OLLCs can be seen in direct topographic relation to a causal agent. This reaction is often attributed to dental restorative materials, mercury amalgam being the most common (10) The cause(s) of the various oral lichenoid lesions, ranging from idiopathic oral lichen planus (OLP) to the contact lesion, is not understood, but all the lesions are characterized histologically by a typical lichenoid tissue reaction featuring (1) a bandlike lymphohistiocytic infiltrate that fills the lamina propria; and (2. Lichenoid drug eruptions are not mentioned in the SmPCs of metoprolol, bisoprolol or atenolol. Psoriasis, aggravation of psoriasis or psoriatiform skin reactions are described as very rare to uncommon adverse drug reactions (1: 100-10.000) [1-3]. Literature Lichenoid drug eruptions as a class effect of beta-blockers have been describe

Lichenoid Contact Dermatitis 3. Lichen Striatus 4. Lichen Nitidus 5. Lichen Spinulosus 6. Benign Lichenoid Keratosis 7. Nekam's Disease 8. Frictional Lichenoid Eruption 9. Graft Vs Host Disease 40. LICHENOID DRUG ERUPTIONS • Many drugs may induce lichenoid dermatitis and lesions develop over weeks to months after starting the therapy Lichenoid interface tissue reaction affects infundibulum and isthmus, with or without involvement of the epidermis Differentiated from discoid lupus erythematosus by absence of deep and perieccrine inflammation and mucin Lupus erythematosus and lichen planus overlap

Lichenoid Tissue Reaction in Malignant MelanomaPPT - Lichenoid eruptions PowerPoint Presentation, freeMedicine by Sfakianakis G

The term interface dermatitis is therefore apt because these findings occur at the interface between the epidermis and dermis. This common thread binds otherwise disparate entities together. Other terms applied to this group of disorders include vacuolar dermatitis, vacuolar interface dermatitis, and lichenoid tissue reaction Lichenoid tissue reaction is characterized by epidermal basal layers injury by T-cells. Effector T-cells activated by several stimulants or cross-reaction with drugs, viruses, chemicals, or self-antigens induce lichenoid tissue reactions, and in our case, drug-specific T-cells, especially CD8-positive T-cells, may be recruited to the. Lichenoid dermatitis is a rare complication after radiation therapy and is often considered as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. It is different from lichen planus and is characterized by fine white scale (Wickham's striae). Here, we report a case of lichenoid dermatitis develope tissue reaction: The response of living tissues to altered conditions or types of restorative materials, metals or cements Keywords: Antihypertensives, cutaneous adverse drug reactions, lichenoid drug reaction, psoriasiform eruption Introduction Antihypertensives are used extensively for hypertension as well as other indications including migraine, alopecia, hemangioma, etc., Cutaneous adverse drug reactions to them are common, but the exact incidence and frequency. Oral lichenoid reaction, dental amalgam, and tin allergy. Pigatto PD Bombeccari G Spadari F Guzzi G Am J Dermatopathol (2011 Jun) 33(4):414‐5. Diagnosing oral lichenoid contact reaction: clinical judgment versus skin‐patch test. Luiz AC Hirota SK Dal Vechio A Reis VM Spina R Migliari DA Minerva Stomatol (2012 Jul‐Aug) 61(7‐8):311‐