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Which of the following veins combine to form the hepatic portal vein?

Chapter 22 Mastering Flashcards Quizle

  1. g from the small intestines travels in the. superior mesenteric vein
  2. g from the small intestines travels in the _____
  3. al vein combines with it. Then it enters the liver and divides and redivides to form capillaries

In fact, the anterior and posterior gastric veins combine to form the hepatic portal vein. It is divided into capillaries in the liver. Blood is collected from the liver through another set of capillaries which later merged to form two large hepatic sinuses that are exposed to the sinus venosus While there may be some variations between individuals, the hepatic portal vein is usually formed by the convergence of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein, referred to as the splenic-mesenteric confluence. In some individuals, the hepatic portal vein also directly joins with the inferior mesenteric vein 222) Identify the three veins that merge to form the hepatic portal vein. (Module 19.21B) A) azygos, hemi-azygos, and phrenic veins B) hepatic, splenic, and sigmoid veins C) superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic veins D) hepatic, splenic, and pancreaticoduodenal veins E) hepatic, right and left colic veins Which veins combine to form the superior vena cava? Subclavian vein, internal jugular, brachiocephalic veins. What vein drains the abdomen and legs? Hepatic Portal Vein: from digestive system. What does the external carotid artery supply? Blood to face and neck. What does the left external jugular vein drain

The splenic vein carries bloodfrom the spleen and pancreas. The superior and inferior mesen-teric veins carry blood from the intestines. The splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein join to form the hepatic portalvein, which enters the liver. Blood from the liver flows into hepatic veins, which join the inferior vena cava vein that receives blood from the arm via the axillary vein. cardiac. three veins that form/empty into the hepatic portal vein. great saphenous. longest superficial vein of the body; found in the leg. common iliac. vein that is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins

Chapter 22 Flashcards Quizle

  1. Portal vein The hepatic portal vein is a vessel that moves blood from the spleen and gastrointestinal tract to the liver. It is approximately three to four inches in length and is usually formed by..
  2. al vein combines with it
  3. The left and middle hepatic veins join to form a single vein before entering the IVC in 60%-86% of people (5, 8, 9). Figure 1 Hepatic veins. Transverse diagram of the liver shows the right hepatic vein (RHV), middle hepatic vein (MHV), and left hepatic vein (LHV) draining into the retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC)
  4. Describe the specifc venous drainage of the hindgut (Inferior mesenteric vein) 2) Portal Venous System Describe the three veins that combine to form the hepatic portal vein (splenic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric veins) Describe the main portal-caval anastamose
  5. There are two portal system in frogs: Renal portal system. Hepatic portal system. 1. Renal Portal System. The veins which carry blood to capillary system in kidneys constitute the renal portal system. It collects blood from all parts of the hind limbs. The impure blood is collected by capillaries, which combine to form femoral and sciatic vein

In a frog, the hepatic portal vein is formed b

  1. The portal vein is formed by the union of the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein, posterior to the neck of the pancreas, at the level of L2. As it ascends towards the liver, the portal vein passes posteriorly to the superior part of the duodenum and the bile duct
  2. The coronary sinus is a vein on the posterior side of the heart that returns deoxygenated blood from the myocardium to the vena cava. Hepatic Portal Circulation. The veins of the stomach and intestines perform a unique function: instead of carrying blood directly back to the heart, they carry blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.
  3. The capillaries form a network in all body tissues except cartilage and epithelium. From the capillaries the blood passes into thin venules which combine to form veins which carry blood towards the heart. But some veins (portal veins, renal veins, and hepatic vein) have capillaries which are just like those of arteries
  4. ant blood supply to the liver parenchyma, and allows the liver to perform its gut-related functions, such as detoxification. Venous drainage of the liver is achieved through hepatic veins
  5. Inferior Mesenteric Vein- This vein drains distal large intestine tissues and the rectum. It joins the splenic vein just before that vessel unites with the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein. Gastric Vein- This vein drains the stomach tissues
  6. al vein. B. Renal portal system:- The system in which deoxygenated blood of hind limbs is returned to the heart through capillaries of kidney is called renal portal system. It is formed by following veins:- a.
  7. Veins of the Upper Limbs Vessel Description Basilic vein Superficial vein of from BIOL 301 at University of Marylan

Venous system of Scoliodon Biology Edu Car

Hepatic portal vein: Anatomy, function, clinical points

  1. Name the structures in the following diagram: 4. What are the mesenteries? Blood enters the liver from the hepatic artery proper and from the hepatic portal vein (which begins with capillaries of the esophagus, stomach, small intestines and most of the large these merge to form the hepatic veins which empty into the inferior vena cava.
  2. The hepatic portal vein and hepatic arteries combined involve the formation of the dual blood supply of the liver. Approximately about 75% of hepatic blood flow is derived directly from the portal vein, while the remaining is derived from the hepatic arteries. Unlike most veins, the hepatic portal vein doesn't drain into the guts
  3. Figure 20.5.22 - Hepatic Portal System: The liver receives blood from the normal systemic circulation via the hepatic artery. It also receives and processes blood from other organs, delivered via the veins of the hepatic portal system. All blood exits the liver via the hepatic vein, which delivers the blood to the inferior vena cava

Intestine. Hepatic portal veins carry the deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver. It carries the nutrient rich blood to the liver which is further processed there and returned back to the heart via inferior vena cava. So, the correct answer is option A Next, the portal venous phase occurs 60-75 seconds after contrast injection as blood from the gastrointestinal tract is collected in the portal vein for processing in the liver. Finally, in the venous phase, blood from the liver is collected into the hepatic veins which converge to the inferior vena cava for return to the right atrium Hepatic portal vein (75%) - supplies the liver with partially deoxygenated blood, carrying nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. This is the dominant blood supply to the liver parenchyma, and allows the liver to perform its gut-related functions, such as detoxification. Venous drainage of the liver is achieved through hepatic veins

Chapter 19 Flashcards Quizle

The portal vein (PV) is the main vessel of the portal venous system (PVS), which drains the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen to the liver. There are several variants affecting the PV, and quite a number of congenital and acquired pathologies. In this pictorial review, we assess the embryological development and normal anatomy of the PVS, displaying. 54. The hepatic portal vein carries blood a. from the hepatic artery to the hepatic vein b. from the liver to the inferior vena cava c. from the liver to the GI tract d. from the GI tract to the liver e. from the GI tract to the inferior vena cav

Hepatic portal vein brings blood from the digestive organs, spleen, pancreas to the liver The division of veins forms two capillary beds From the liver blood flows into the hepatic vein, re-joining with the inferior vena cava Emptying into the heart Portal circulation is defined as one that includes 2 capillaries emptying into one another The median cubital vein is the vein from which blood samples are typically obtained. Before leaving the forearm, the ulnar vein and the radial vein combine to form the _____ that ascends into the arm. Hence, the basilic vein, the cephalic vein, and the brachial vein are the major veins of the arm. Consequently, the arm is drained by these veins Via hepatic veins. The central veins of the hepatic lobule form --> collecting veins which then combine --> forming hepatic veins. These hepatic veins then open into --> inferior vena cava. Located in right hypochondrium and epigastric areas, and extends into the left hypochondrium. Coeliac trunk. Intrahepatic Resistance.

BLOOD VESSELS Flashcards Quizle

  1. The internal structure of the liver is made of around 100,000 small hexagonal functional units known as lobules. Each lobule consists of a central vein surrounded by 6 hepatic portal veins and 6 hepatic arteries. These blood vessels are connected by many capillary-like tubes called sinusoids, which extend from the portal veins and arteries to.
  2. - Blood from hepatic arteries and portal veins flows through the sinusoids toward the central vein - Efferent blood leaves through the central vein to join the vena cava - Flow past the hepatocytes allows for exchange of substance
  3. The blood vessels (veins) bringing blood from various organs of the digestive system (stomach, duodenum, illiums, rectum, pancreas and spleen etc) combine to form a large vein. This is known as the hepatic portal vein
  4. Part 2: Blood Vessel Pathways Blood vessels form two major circular pathways called circuits. These are the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Special pathways occur in several areas and most of these involve anastomosis. Examples of these special pathways are: Circle of Willis in the brain arterial anastomosis Hepatic Portal System in the liver venous anastomosis Renal circuit in the kidney.

Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Vein

Splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein unite to form hepatic portal vein. Solved 43 Exercise 21 Review Sheet Anatomy Of Blood Vesse Learn vocabulary terms and more with flashcards games and other study tools. Anatomy of blood vessels exercise 21. Major arteries of the trunk. Anatomy of blood vessels The hepatic artery is a branch of the caeliac artery. The portal vein is formed by tributaries draining the spleen, pancreas and digestive tract. Intrahepatic arteries combine with portal vein branches to supply the connective tissue and hepatic sinusoids of the liver. Blood flows from the portal areas into the central vein

The smallest bile ductules in the rat form a biliary ductular plexus which surrounds portal veins within portal tracts before combining to form the smallest ducts (Murakami et al. 2001). Small ducts coalesce into progressively larger ducts to become the main hepatic duct emerging from each lobe, as is elegantly depicted in Figure 2a for the. Other materials including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are processed and secreted into the sinusoids or just stored in the cells until called upon. The hepatic sinusoids combine and send blood to a central vein. Blood then flows through a hepatic vein into the inferior vena cava. This means that blood and bile flow in opposite directions The hepatic veins, venae hepaticae, in the European bison, as in other mammals, run completely hidden in the liver parenchyma and drain blood from it to the caudal v. cava. Part of the caudal vena cava, v. cava caudalis, connected with the liver (Fig1., 2—1run) s downwards from the level of the I lumba 1) Trace the path of a blood cell from where it exits the heart (1) to the small small intestine and then back to the heart (12) via the hepatic portal system. capillaries around small intestine ascending aorta right atrium of heart descending aorta: abdominal aorta inferior vena cava capillaries of the liver descending aorta: thoracic aorta hepatic portal vein superior mesenteric artery. When the hepatic artery is blocked during embolization therapy, the healthy liver tissue continues to receive blood from the hepatic portal vein. There are two main types of embolization therapy: Transarterial embolization (TAE): A small incision (cut) is made in the inner thigh and a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted and threaded up.

After its formation, the hepatic portal vein also receives branches from the gastric veins of the stomach and cystic veins from the gall bladder. The hepatic portal vein delivers materials from these digestive and circulatory organs directly to the liver for processing. Figure \(\PageIndex{22}\): Veins Draining to and from Hepatic Portal System 75. The muscular layer of the stomach is different than the rest of the digestive tract because. (1) it has one layer of smooth muscle. (2) it has two layers of smooth muscle. (3) it has three layers of smooth muscle. (4) it has four layers of smooth muscle. 76. Parietal cells in the lining of the stomach produce Figure \(\PageIndex{22}\): Hepatic Portal System. The liver receives blood from the normal systemic circulation via the hepatic artery. It also receives and processes blood from other organs, delivered via the veins of the hepatic portal system. All blood exits the liver via the hepatic vein, which delivers the blood to the inferior vena cava FIGURE 45-1. Veins and arteries of the head of pancreas, (a) A transhepatic venogram. a, catheter in hepatic vein; b, catheter in celiac axis; PV, portal vein; SMV, superior mesenteric vein; JV, proximal jejunal veins join the superior mesenteric vein at its confluence with the portal vein. The arrow points at transhepatic catheter. (b) Venogram of the gastrocolic trunk The blood vessels (veins) bringing blood from various organs of the digestive system (stomach, duodenum, illium, pancreas, spleen, etc.) combine to form a large vein: the hepatic portal vein. It unites with the abdominal vein and then divides and re-divides into capillaries to allow the transfer of some digested food into the liver for storage

Right & left ducts join outside the liver to form common hepatic duct - Cystic duct from gallbladder joins common hepatic duct to form the bile duct - Pancreatic duct and bile duct combine to form hepatopancreatic ampulla emptying into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla - Sphincter of Oddi (hepatopancreatic sphincter) regulates release. The portal vein is peculiar between the veins because it begins like other veins because of the union of tributaries, but ends as an artery when it divides into branches The superior and inferior mesenteric veins join the splenic vein behind the pancreas to form the portal vein which carries blood to the liver, which in turn is drained by the.

The posterior cardinal veins are replaced by a posterior vena cava, but they are still visible in salamanders. There is a renal portal system, and an alternative route back to the heart from the legs is provided by an anterior abdominal vein that enters the hepatic portal vein to the liver. Amphibian larvae and the adults of some species have. Hepatic vein Po2 (about 50 mmHg) is higher than true mixed venous Po2 because of mesenteric arterial shunting. Blood velocity in the portal vein is slow (about 9 crn/s), and is half that in the hepatic artery. The portal vein is a valveless system where pressure depends on the tone of the sphincter-like zones in the hepatic vein

Cirrhosis Definition Cirrhosis is a chronic degenerative disease in which normal liver cells are damaged and are then replaced by scar tissue. Description Cirrhosis changes the structure of the liver and the blood vessels that nourish it. The disease reduces the liver's ability to manufacture proteins and process hormones, nutrients, medications, and. A lump of clotted blood may form in a treated vein that may require drainage. Rarely, a blood clot may travel to a deeper vein in your leg (deep vein thrombosis). Deep vein thrombosis carries a risk of pulmonary embolism (a very rare complication of sclerotherapy), an emergency situation where the clot travels from your leg to your lungs and. A hepatic vein is any of the veins that are used to carry oxygen-depleted blood out of the liver and into the inferior vena Budd-Chiari syndrome occurs when a hepatic vein outflow is blocked by an obstruction in a hepatic vein, the inferior vena cavaA hepatic vein is any of the veins that carry oxygen depleted blood out of the liver and into the inferior vena cava There, the micelles release their fats to diffuse across the cell membrane. The fats are then reassembled into triglycerides and mixed with other lipids and proteins into chylomicrons that can pass into lacteals. Other absorbed monomers travel from blood capillaries in the villus to the hepatic portal vein and then to the liver The left hepatic vein is a derivative of the left vitelline vein, and the terminology is synonymous with persistent left vitelline vein . While independently, both anomalies have been described, a review of literature has failed to reveal prior description of the combination of an absent azygos vein with a persistent left vitelline vein

Lymph forms in the space of Disse and drains into the portal lymphatic vessels. These vessels form plexuses accompanying the artery, vein, and bile ducts, exiting at the porta hepatis to drain into the hepatic artery and celiac lymph nodes. Lym-phatic drainage also occurs as a plexus around the hepatic veins and within the capsule of the liver Budd-Chiari syndrome is a very rare condition, affecting one in a million adults. The condition is caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins that drain the liver.It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites, and liver enlargement.The formation of a blood clot within the hepatic veins can lead to Budd-Chiari syndrome. The syndrome can be fulminant, acute, chronic, or. Caitlin Kenney Renal vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the renal vein and obstructs the outflow of blood from the kidney. Renal veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood out of the kidney to the inferior vena cava. They lie anterior to the corresponding renal arteries and join with the inferior vena cava at close to ninety degree angles

These tumors more frequently invade portal or hepatic veins. Portal vein invasion is much more common than hepatic vein involvement, but hepatic vein involvement is more specific. Tumors invading the hepatic vein may extend to the IVC or the right atrium. Tumor invasion into the hepatic duct or common bile duct can be seen in 2-6% of advanced. enclose the portal triad (portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct) º ontains c lymph nodes and neres.v † Gall - bladder fossa: º located on the inferior slope of the visceral surface with cystic duct close to the right margin of porta hepatis º lies between the colic impression and the quadrate lobe

The two veins that form hepatic portal vein are the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein. These veins usually receive blood from the inferior mesenteric, gastric, and cystic veins The two veins that form hepatic portal vein are the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein. These veins usually receive blood from the inferior mesenteric, gastric, and cystic veins.. Circulatory Pathways. The blood vessels of the body are functionally divided into two distinctive circuits: pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit. The pump for the pulmonary circuit, which circulates blood through the lungs, is the right ventricle.The left ventricle is the pump for the systemic circuit, which provides the blood supply for the tissue cells of the body Hepatic Portal Vein. The blood vessels (veins) bringing blood form various organs of digestive system (stomach, duodenum, illiums, rectum, pancreas and spleen etc) combine to form a large vein. This is known as hepatic portal vein. Near the liver a branch of abdominal vein combines with it The hepatic vein branches bisect the portal branches inside the liver parenchyma (i.e., the right hepatic vein runs between the right anterior and posterior portal veins; the middle hepatic vein passes between the right anterior and left portal vein; and the left hepatic vein crosses between the segment II and III branches of the left portal vein)

These ducts amalgamate to form the common hepatic duct, which runs alongside the hepatic vein. As the common hepatic duct descends, it is joined by the cystic duct - which allows bile to flow in and out of the gallbladder for storage and release. At this point, the common hepatic duct and cystic duct combine to form the common bile duct Blood vessels form a closed system of tubes that carries blood away from the heart are called. A. Arteries. B. Arteriole. C. Capillaries. D. Venules. During systemic circulation, blood leaves the __________. A. right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta. B. lungs and moves to the left atrium Left gastric vein drains directly into hepatic portal vein. Trace the blood flow for the following situations. Anatomy And Physiology Blood Quiz Ch 16 Proprofs Quiz Factors that affect blood pressure cardiovascular system. Anatomy of blood vessels exercise 21. Name all structures vessels heart chambers and others passed through en route 90) Put the following steps of stomach acid production in the correct order starting with the reaction that requires an enzyme. 1. H2CO3 dissociates. 2. Chloride ion combines with H+ in the gastric lumen. 3. Water and CO2 combine to form carbonic acid. 4. H+ and bicarbonate ion are transported into the gastric lumen. 5. Cl- diffuses into the.

Nakamura & Tsuzuki classification was used to describe hepatic vein variations. • Only 26.5% of persons have conventional venous drainage from the left liver. • The left and middle hepatic veins formed a common trunk in 73.5% persons. • Other common patterns were type I (27.5%) and Type II (29.4%). • Type III variants were least common. The hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. The liver consumes about 20% of total body oxygen when at rest, so the total liver blood flow is quite high. Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and partially deoxygenated blood. Key Term portal vein and hepatic vein in children after liver transplantation. Graft-related outcomes characterised by clinical or surgical scales, graft survival and/or graft-related complications including any of the following: Vascular complications: Hepatic artery thrombosis (early/late, partial/complete (occlusion)), hepatic arter

Veins Flashcards Quizle

In the hepatic sinusoid, arterial and portal blood flows mix and drain into the centrolobular veins, which drain into venules, which eventually form the hepatic veins. There are three major hepatic veins (right, middle, and left), all draining into the termination of the abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC) near the diaphragm and the right atrium The splanchnic plexus is the primordia of a portion of the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the ductus venosus, the hepatic veins, and the left gastric vein. Infracardiac TAPVR has been reported with drainage of the vertical anomalous vein into each of these veins [4]. TAPVR was first described by Wilson in 1798 [4] and by Friedlosky in.

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or TIPSS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver.The target portosystemic gradient after TIPS formation is <12 mmHg. Indications. acute variceal bleeding when pharmacologic therapy. Capillaries combine to form the smallest veins, called: Venules: The large vessels that supplies blood to the head: Carotid arteries: The vessel supplying oxygenated blood to the liver: Hepatic Artery: The vessel that carries food from the digestive tract to the liver: Hepatic portal vein: The vein that drains the area supplied by the carotid. The hepatic artery supplies about 45% to 50% of the liver's oxygen requirements, and the portal vein supplies the remaining 50% to 55% (Figure 32-2). Hepatic arterial flow seems to be dependent on metabolic demand (autoregulation), whereas flow through the portal vein is dependent on blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen The veins leading from these organs combine to form the portal vein, which leads to the liver. Within the liver, the artery leading to the liver (the hepatic artery) and the portal vein subdivide themselves into a complex network of capillary-like vessels called sinusoids which bring the blood into closer contact with the cells of the liver

Portal Vein Anatomy, Function & Definition Body Map

The hepatic veins originate in the central veins of the liver lobules, where they receive blood from branches of both the hepatic arteries and the hepatic portal vein (Figure 112). The hepatic vein branches terminate in three large veins, designated right, middle, and left Hepatic vein obstruction prevents blood from flowing out of the liver and back to the heart. This blockage can cause liver damage. Obstruction of this vein can be caused by a tumor or growth pressing on the vessel, or by a clot in the vessel (hepatic vein thrombosis).. Most often, it is caused by conditions that make blood clots more likely to form, including Blood is carried to the liver via two large vessels: the hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta, and the portal vein carries blood containing digested food from the small intestine. These blood vessels subdivide in the liver repeatedly, terminating in minute capillaries. Each capillary leads to a lobule

Venous system of frog hafizbai

If a shunt cannot be identified at surgery, an intra-operative portogram is performed (Figures 2 and 3). When the shunt is identified, pressure in the portal vein may be measured to determine if complete ligation is possible. Excessively high portal system pressure, called portal hypertension, can result in death anastomotic veins between tributaries of the superior rectal vein and the external pudendal vein. d)Blood from the portal system normally passes through the liver before draining into the inferior vena cava by way of the hepatic veins. e)There are five lumbar vertebrae and 4 pairs of lumbar arteries The inferior mesenteric vein receives the left colic vein, sigmoid veins, and the superior rectal vein. Abdominal and Pelvic Veins. The common femoral vein becomes the external iliac vein above the inguinal ligament. The latter unites with the internal iliac vein to form the common iliac vein at the level of the sacroiliac joint Individual patients were advised to undergo US in the same center by the same experienced operator. 15 The presence or absence of focal liver lesions, thrombosis of the portal vasculature, hepatic veins, and vena cava were reported on a standardized form. Portal vein flow velocity was recorded Cirrhosis is an advanced stage of liver fibrosis that is accompanied by distortion of the hepatic vasculature. It leads to shunting of the portal and arterial blood supply directly into the hepatic outflow (central veins), compromising exchange between hepatic sinusoids and the adjacent liver parenchyma, i.e., hepatocytes

Understanding the Spectral Doppler Waveform of the Hepatic

The resulting pressure on the vein (portal hypertension) causes increased pressure in blood vessels upstream, such as those in the esophagus. These veins are weaker than the larger portal vein and can develop into varicose veins, much like you see on people's legs, or on the abdomen at times with liver disease The right hepatic vein drains separately into the IVC, but the middle hepatic vein and the left hepatic vein may share a common trunk (65% to 85%) . In addition to the three main hepatic veins, small accessory (short) hepatic veins from the pericaval liver segments drain directly into the IVC inferior to the drainage of the three major veins. Anatomy of blood vessels exercise 21. Drain the digestive organs spleen and pancreas and deliver blood to liver via hepatic portal vein inferior mesenteric vein drains distal part of large intestine joins the splenic vein. Trace the pathway of a carbon dioxide gas molecule in the blood from the inferior vena cava until it leaves the bloodstream

The vascular architecture of the human adult liver is particularly complex. Two distinct afferent circulatory systems coexist: one, represented by the portal vein and its intrahepatic branches, is responsible for the functional circulation of the liver, which conveys a blood of venous origin, coming from the intestine, the pancreas and the spleen; the other, represented by the hepatic artery. Venous thrombosis is thrombosis in a vein, caused by a thrombus (blood clot). A common form of venous thrombosis is deep vein thrombosis (DVT), when a blood clot forms in the deep veins. If the thrombus breaks off (it embolizes) and flows towards the lungs.It can become a pulmonary embolism (PE), a blood clot in the lungs. The conditions of DVT only, DVT with PE, and PE only are captured by.

Near the connection with the right subcardinal vein, this system is interrupted by hepatic sinusoids, the site of the developing liver parenchyma. These sinusoids are in turn drained by the efferent venae revehentes, which combine to form the left and right hepatic veins, which drain into the right atrium Hepatic Portal System • Before conveying the blood to the posterior vena cava, the veins of the stomach and intestine enter the liver as a combined hepatic portal vein. • The hepatic portal vein divides into capillaries and then forms a new hepatic vein. Portal Vein: It is a vein which starts with capillaries and ends in capillaries Vascular anatomy. The hepatic veins drain the liver directly into the suprahepatic IVC. The larger right hepatic vein has a short 1 cm extrahepatic course, while the smaller middle and left hepatic veins usually join a common trunk 1 to 2 cm in length before entering the IVC separately from the right hepatic vein The principal venous drainage of the liver is by the right, middle and left hepatic veins, which enter the vena cava . In 25% of individuals, there is an inferior right hepatic vein, and numerous small veins drain direct into the vena cava from the caudate lobe (segment I). The functional unit of the liver is the hepatic acinus Portal hypertension refers to a pathological elevation of portal venous pressure resulting from obstructions in portal blood flow, which may be either prehepatic (e.g., portal vein thrombosis), hepatic (e.g., liver cirrhosis), or posthepatic (e.g., right-sided heart failure)