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What did the New Negro Movement encourage artists to do

What did the New Negro Movement encourage artists to do

Harlem Renaissance Flashcards Quizle

Harlem Renaissance (New Negro Movement) Art movement The term Harlem Renaissance refers to the prolific flowering of literary, visual, and musical arts within the African American community that emerged around 1920 in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. The visual arts were one component of a rich cultural development, including many interdisciplinary collaborations, where artists worked. What did the New Negro Movement encourage artists to do? b. seek their artistic roots in traditional African art Jacob Lawrence was the first African American artist to _____. a. gain acclaim from whites in the New York art world What was the goal of the New Negro Movement? a Evoking the New Negro, the NAACP lobbied aggressively for the passage of a federal law that would prohibit lynching. The NAACP played a crucial role in the flowering of the Negro Renaissance centered in New York's Harlem, the cultural component of the New Negro Movement New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term New Negro was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke in his anthology The New Negro

What was the goal of the New Negro Movement? [NOT] It was designed to help African American artists gain notoriety. http://media.education2020.com/evresources/4002-06-02-03-00_files/i0140000.jpg Who painted the image above The Harlem Renaissance was a period in American and African American history that lasted from approximately 1918 until 1938. Due to staunch Jim Crow laws in the South, and a majority of the population feeling the effects of post-war, economic depression, many African Americans found themselves migrating towards the industrialized, Northern cities The New Negro, Locke announced, differed from the Old Negro in assertiveness and self-confidence, which led New Negro writers to question traditional white aesthetic standards, to eschew parochialism and propaganda, and to cultivate personal self-expression, racial pride, and literary experimentation

What did the New Negro Movement encourage artists to do

  1. g numerous self-help institutions, such as Colored Women's Clubs, key indicators of the race's capacity for elevation...
  2. Locke's primary goal in the essay The New Negro is to migrate from monolithic notions of an Old Negro, as well as from the exhausted frameworks of bourgeois intellectual black leadership toward an idea that gives creative agency and credibility to the rank and file of Negro life (Locke, New Negro: 6)
  3. The Harlem Renaissance — known then as the New Negro Movement — saw the rise of jazz, the launch of such literary careers as Langston Hughes' and Zora Neale Hurston's, and a new sense of black..
  4. Nevertheless, it importantly brought together a mass of black people energized by the population's World War I military service, the urban environment, and for many, ideas of Pan-Africanism or Garveyism. Out of the area's cultural ferment emerged the Harlem Renaissance, or what was then termed New Negro Movement
  5. Aaron Douglas. Aspects of Negro Life: From Slavery to Reconstruction. Oil on canvas, 1934. The New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Art and Artifacts Division

As the civil rights movement surged through the United States during the summer of 1963, a group of New York-based African American artists brought these questions to the fore as the Spiral Group Dedicated to critical inquiry, the collective centered the concerns of Black artists at a time when they were largely excluded by white-owned art. Harlem Renaissance - Harlem Renaissance - Black heritage and American culture: This interest in Black heritage coincided with efforts to define an American culture distinct from that of Europe, one that would be characterized by ethnic pluralism as well as a democratic ethos. The concept of cultural pluralism (a term coined by the philosopher Horace Kallen in 1915) inspired notions of the. When students do draw on contemporary culture, their references are usually to popular music, and I encourage this. Because The New Negro anthology itself (indeed the New Negro movement) was so deliberately an interdisciplinary project, I try to represent as many art forms as possible. (This is where student presentations can be profitably used. Artists, writers, and musicians were able to express their heritage and feelings, and were liked by the majority of the American public. The Effect of World War One on Harlem Renaissance Some factors that helped the Harlem Renaissance or New Negro Movement include that many young, white males had to go help fight World War One in Europe

Artists by art movement: Harlem Renaissance (New Negro

If there was a statement that defined the philosophy of the new literary movement it was Langston Hughes's essay, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain, published in The Nation, June 16, 1926: We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame Black Male was the title of an art exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in1994 in New York. Harlem Renaissance is a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the New Negro Movement.The Studio Museum in Harlem is the nexus for artists of African descent locally, nationally, and internationally and for work that has been inspired and.

38 Art History- Harlem Renaissance Study - What did the

The New Negro Movement - NAACP: A Century in the Fight for

  1. Jacob Lawrence and Augusta Savage were among the most lauded artists of the Harlem Renaissance in their time. Originally called the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance was a cultural, social and artistic upheaval that occurred in New York City's Harlem neighborhood between roughly the end of World War I and the mid-1930s
  2. Sep 2nd, 2020. Black migrants from the segregated South went to Harlem in New York City and sparked a creative renaissance that continues to shape American culture today. The Harlem Renaissance was a period of black cultural and social achievement during the early‐ mid 20th century that left an indelible footprint on our nation's history
  3. The New Deal was one of President Roosevelt's efforts to end the Great Depression. Art projects were a major part of this series of federal relief programs

Summary of Harlem Renaissance Art. The term Harlem Renaissance refers to the prolific flowering of literary, visual, and musical arts within the African American community that emerged around 1920 in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. The visual arts were one component of a rich cultural development, including many interdisciplinary. The New Negro: An Interpretation (1925) is an anthology of fiction, poetry, and essays on African and African-American art and literature edited by Alain Locke, who lived in Washington, DC, and taught at Howard University during the Harlem Renaissance. As a collection of the creative efforts coming out of the burgeoning New Negro Movement or Harlem Renaissance, the book is considered by. The Black Arts Movement (BAM) was an African American-led art movement, active during the 1960s and 1970s. Through activism and art, BAM created new cultural institutions and conveyed a message of black pride.. Famously referred to by Larry Neal as the aesthetic and spiritual sister of Black Power, BAM applied these same political ideas to art and literature W.E.B. Du Bois encouraged talented artists to leave the South. The Renaissance was more than a literary movement: It involved racial pride, fueled in part by the militancy of the New Negro.

New Negro - Wikipedi

The Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro. One of the most significant intellectual and artistic trends of twentieth century American history, the Harlem Renaissance impacted art, literature, and music in a manner that forever altered the American cultural landscape. The Harlem Renaissance was a movement in the 1920s through which African. THE NEW NEGRO The Life of Alain Locke By Jeffrey C. Stewart 932 pp. Oxford University Press. $39.95.. Alain LeRoy Locke's drive to revolutionize black culture was fueled in no small part by his. The idea that the New Negro was self-assertive, which existed throughout the Harlem Renaissance, encouraged new Negro writers to express themselves in ways once thought too radical. 2) The influence of the West Indian population had a great effect on how the American Negro perceived himself economically and politically

Jacob Lawrence grew up in Harlem in the 1930 s, where, despite the Depression, he found a real vitality among the black artists, poets, and writers in the community. He studied at the Harlem Art Workshop and joined the 306 studio, where he met his future wife, Gwendolyn Knight. Lawrence never completed high school but taught himself African American history, spending hours in. It was an artistic, intellectual and social explosion of art style, and it is a renaissance of many art styles that was centred in Harlem (New York), that's why we call it Harlem Renaissance. In 1920, the name of the Harlem Renaissance was New Negro Movement.The main attraction of this art style is its African-American cultural expressions In all the politic writings, theater, art, music and literature produced during this period, there is an overall sense of pride in the African American experience and the New Negro. The politicians and artists involved in the movement were committed to producing thought-provoking pieces created to challenge and uplift the African American. Michael Verity. Updated July 15, 2018. Starting with the age of bebop, jazz ceased to cater to popular audiences and instead became solely about the music and the musicians who played it. Since then, jazz has been symbolically linked to the civil rights movement. The music, which appealed to whites and Blacks alike, provided a culture in which. Marcus Garvey and his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), represent the largest mass movement in African-American history. Proclaiming a black nationalist Back to Africa message, Garvey and the UNIA established 700 branches in thirty-eight states by the early 1920s

The New Negro Movement of the 1920s represents a new approach to the fight for civil rights. In the past, Black Americans like Booker T. Washington attempted to carve out a place for Black people in a society dominated by wealthy White Americans by making White people feel comfortable and unthreatened The literary movement, Negritude, was born out of the Paris intellectual environment of 1930s and 1940s. It is a product of black writers joining together through the French language to assert their cultural identity.. Aimé Césaire was the first to coin the word in his epic poem, Cahier d'un retour au pays natal, declaring my negritude is not a stone, its deafness hurled against the. The article discounted the existence of Negro art, arguing that African-American artists shared European influences with their white counterparts, and were, therefore, producing the same kind of.

The growth of their social and political consciousness resulted in the New Negro movement with its centre in Harlem. The New Negro was full of pride and dignity. Harlem Renaissance was an era of African American talents. The New Negroes of the 1920s included poets, novelists, Blues singers, jazz musicians creating their art out of Negro folk. Louis Armstrong's recording of What Did I Do (To Be So Black and Blue figures significantly in the beginning of Invisible Man and is, in some ways, one of the major themes of the novel; the other being how the Negro is a central figure and actor in American cultural life, that the black American is indeed American in a vital sense. The. Though his career as a photographer spanned six decades, it is the period from 1940 to 1950, the focus of the exhibition Gordon Parks: The New Tide, Early Work 1940-1950, that most significantly defined his point of view as an African American artist and documenter of American life at the dawn of the modern civil rights movement Alain LeRoy Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and. Aaron Douglas (1898-1979) was the Harlem Renaissance artist whose work best exemplified the 'New Negro' philosophy. He painted murals for public buildings and produced illustrations and cover designs for many black publications including The Crisis and Opportunity.In 1940 he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where he founded the Art Department at Fisk University and tought for twenty nine years

Hughes stood up for black artists George Schuyler, editor of a black paper in Pittsburgh, wrote the article The Negro-Art Hokum for an edition of The Nation in June 1926. The article discounted the existence of Negro art, arguing that African-American artists shared European influences with their white counterparts, and were. Alain LeRoy Locke. Alain LeRoy Locke is heralded as the Father of the Harlem Renaissance for his publication in 1925 of The New Negro— an anthology of poetry, essays, plays, music and portraiture by white and black artists. Locke is best known as a theorist, critic, and interpreter of African-American literature and art In the early 1960s, the songs of the movement were gospel or Negro spirituals with politicized lyrics, said Bob Santelli, director of the Grammy Museum and curator for the White House's A. In 1941, Melville Herskovits published The Myth of the Negro Past, a text that became a classic in discussions of African Americans and their relationships to Africa.The text helped dispel the prevailing popular belief that blacks had lost all their culture in the dreaded Middle Passage, that infamous second leg of the slave trade that brought free Africans into the New World to be enslaved

Originally called the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance was a literary and intellectual flowering that fostered a new black cultural identity in the 1920s and 1930s. Critic and teacher Alain Locke described it as a spiritual coming of age in which the black community was able to seize upon its first chances for group expression and self determination A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the sciences, and philosophies.Historically, different nations or regions of the world have gone through their own independent sequence of movements in culture, but as world communications have accelerated this geographical distinction has become less distinct Background. The Harlem Renaissance was a significant social and cultural movement which took place in the 1920s and 1930s following the Great Migration during which thousands of African-Americans. , at the time, the black luminaries living and working uptown called themselves the New Negro Movement, a term coined by philosopher and educator Dr. Alain Leroy Locke. Underscoring the vital cultural movement was the desire to represent African-American life through the fine arts, literature, music, and whatever other creative means were. Like the slave rebellions and the Garvey movement, it was extensively organized. Its use of the written word, art, and culture to heighten the consciousness of the black community also linked the movement to the Harlem Renaissance (or the New Negro Renaissance), which relied heavily on these black expressive endeavors

Marcus Garvey was born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica on 17 August 1887, the youngest of 11 children. He inherited a keen interest in books from his father, a mason and made full use of the extensive. The Harlem Renaissance is the name for a movement in African-American culture in the 1920s and 1930s which has had a big influence on African-American literature, philosophy and music.The Harlem Renaissance is also called the Black Literary Renaissance, 'The New Negro Movement and The flowering of Negro literature.. The movement began in Harlem, New York after World War I Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) was a Jamaican-born Black nationalist and leader of the Pan-Africanism movement, which sought to unify and connect people of African descent worldwide These lines from Césaire's Discourse on African Art delivered in Dakar on April 6, 1966, at the opening of the World Festival of Negro Arts summarize Négritude philosophy of the significance of art, especially black art: Through art, the reified world becomes again the human world, the world of living realities, the world of.

The Harlem Renaissance and the New Negro Guided Histor

The Great Migration was the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from about 1916 to 1970 Harlem is a neighborhood in Upper Manhattan, New York City.It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. The greater Harlem area encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th.

New Kids in the Neighborhood (Negro in the Suburbs), 1967 (Norman Rockwell) Pop art was a movement that did not always do justice to the protest movement. It was based on parody and whimsy. More than a literary movement and more than a social revolt against racism, the Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of African-Americans and redefined African-American expression. African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate their heritage and to become The New Negro, a term coined in 1925 by sociologist and critic Alain LeRoy Locke What Ideals Did Harlem Renaissance Writers Promote?. The Harlem Renaissance was a movement in art, philosophy, music and writing that occurred in the primarily black neighborhood of Harlem, in New York City. Most Harlem Renaissance writers and artists worked in the 1920's and 1930's, though many continued writing even. The Harlem Renaissance is defined as an era (1910s to 1930s), as well as a movement, that was characterized by explosive growth of distinctive ideas and artworks among African American communities, particularly communities in the North. The scope and impact of the movement, known back then as the New Negro Movement, was far-reaching, including. The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic flowering of the New Negro movement as its participants celebrated their African heritage and embraced self-expression, rejecting long-standind. And often degrading or what we called stereotype

The phrase black is beautiful referred to a broad embrace of black culture and identity. It called for an appreciation of the black past as a worthy legacy, and it inspired cultural pride in contemporary black achievements. In its philosophy, Black is beautiful focused also on emotional and psychological well-being But New York (and particularly Harlem, which offered African Americans lower real estate and rental prices than many other locations) was a significant city for a number of reasons as black Americans began reestablishing and redefining what it meant to be black in a post-slavery world.To think about it in a concrete and practical way, New York was where the existing artistic infrastructure. Students in U.S. high schools can get free digital access to The New York Times until Sept. 1, 2021.. Lesson Overview. Featured Article: The Black Woman Artist Who Crafted a Life She Was Told. Scaffolds help construction workers reach higher levels of tall buildings and, in a similar way, scaffolding questions should help you reach higher levels of understanding of the topic being discussed. Notice that there are four different categories of websites, Dance, Music, Literature, and Art of the Harlem Renaissance Benefits. Let's take a closer look at the New Deal's impact on the lives and experiences of African Americans, starting with the benefits. Specifically, African Americans benefited from many of.

African American literature - The rise of the New Negro

The Harlem Renaissance, also known as the New Negro Movement, was a period of great cultural activity and innovation among African American artists and writers, one that saw new artists and landmark works appear in the fields of literature, dance, art, and music. The participants were all fiercely individualistic talents, and not all of them. Like many artists, Lady A had plans derailed in 2020. The country trio had released their eighth album, Ocean, in late 2019 and had a four-month summer tour planned before the coronavirus pandemic hit. Despite having a new album in tow, the group decided to use their unexpected downtime to write. Overview. The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement in the United States that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. While the zenith of the movement occurred between 1924 and 1929, its ideas have lived on much longer. At the time, it was known as the New Negro Movement, named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke

The New Negro, before being a cultural movement, borrowed its identity from a book with the same title, penned by an African-American author named Alain Locke. Ironically, this title reflects the true intensity and crux of the movement Black nationalist and leader of the Pan-Africanism movement Marcus Garvey was born in Jamaica but moved to Harlem in 1916 and began publishing the influential newspaper Negro World in 1918. His. The African American press proudly reported that African Americans exhibited the militancy of the New Negro in fighting back against these mob attacks. Black leaders spoke less of the crucial role of elites as agents of racial uplift and increasingly embraced a politics of mass protest, labor organization, and economic analyses of the plight of. Artists picketed the show. Art critics condemned the Met's move away from art toward leftist sociology. The American Jewish Congress took out a full-page ad in the New York Times condemning the Met A Racial Divide, Diminished: What Was On The Radio In 1963 The pop charts were dominated by feel-good summer songs during the summer of '63. But there was an alternate reality on the R&B charts.

The New Negro and the Black Image: From Booker T

How The 'New World' Symphony Introduced American Music To Itself Sometimes it takes an outsider to see a culture clearly. Czech composer Antonin Dvorak's Ninth Symphony was an ode to what American. Black Artists, Racial Equality, and Dr. Albert C. Barnes Known for his art collection, he is less well known for championing civil rights . Posted Aug 11, 202 Abolitionist and women's rights advocate Sojourner Truth was enslaved in New York until she was an adult. Born Isabella Baumfree around the turn of the nineteenth century, her first language was Dutch. Owned by a series of masters, she was freed in 1827 by the New York Gradual Abolition Act and worked as a domestic The women poets of the Harlem Renaissance faced one of the classic American double-binds: they were black, and they were female, during an epoch when the building of an artistic career for anyone of either of those identities was a considerable challenge. To the general reader, the poetry of the Harlem Renaissance is more than likely embodied in the work of two or three writers: Countee Cullen. Archibald John Motley, Jr. (October 7, 1891 - January 16, 1981), was an American visual artist. He studied painting at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago during the 1910s, graduating in 1918. He is most famous for his colorful chronicling of the African-American experience during the 1920s and 1930s, and is considered one of the major contributors to the Harlem Renaissance, or the.

Alain Locke's The New Negro: Aspects of Negro Culture

At the same time that Romare Bearden was becoming a true artist, civil rights leaders debated over the direction of their movement. The 'New Negro' of the 1920s gave way to the Black Power movement of the 1960s. Jazz, that buoyant expression of the 1920s, reflected the crisis in American society over the Vietnam War and civil rights If the new name catches on, it will challenge headline writers and disconcert citizens only recently accustomed to black. But people ought to be able to call themselves whatever they wish Whether releasing songs that speak to a particular social movement, or documenting the everyday realities of their lives, Black artists are constantly releasing music that is inherently political African American literature, body of literature written by Americans of African descent. Beginning in the pre-Revolutionary War period, African American writers have engaged in a creative, if often contentious, dialogue with American letters. The result is a literature rich in expressive subtlety and social insight, offering illuminating assessments of American identities and history The movement, like all historical iterations of what we call woke, sought to forge an identity both independent of white determinants and accepted by the wider world. In a 1923 essay entitled The New Negro Faces America, West Indian writer Eric D. Walrond described the New Negro thus: He does not want . . . to be like the white man

Logo of NAACP #5 When it happened, Harlem Renaissance was called the New Negro Movement. The Harlem Renaissance is considered to have begun in the late-1910s and lasted till around mid-1930s.In 1925, The New Negro: An Interpretation, an anthology of fiction, poetry, and essays on African and African-American art and literature, was published.It was edited by Alain Locke, an African American. Winner of the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for BiographyWinner of the 2018 National Book Award for NonfictionA tiny, fastidiously dressed man emerged from Black Philadelphia around the turn of the century to mentor a generation of young artists including Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Jacob Lawrence and call them the New Negro -- the creative African Americans whose art, literature, music. It would take another half-century — and a new suffrage campaign, with black women in a leading role — before that black community was fully enfranchised, through the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Marcus Garvey, charismatic Black leader who organized the first important American Black nationalist movement (1919-26), based in New York City's Harlem. He reached the height of his power in 1920, when he presided at an international convention, with delegates present from 25 countries The story of the birth and development of one of the few art forms developed in North America and done so primarily by African Americans — including the struggles of its practitioners to survive the brutality of Jim Crow, mobsters and ruthless exploitation by the music industry — is told in Gerald Horne's new book, Jazz and Justice: Racism and the Political Economy of the Music

In 1900, Wells-Barnett publishes Mob Rule in New Orleans. The text tells the story of Robert Charles, an African-American man who fought police brutality in May of 1900. Collaborating with W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, Wells-Barnett helped increase membership of the Niagara Movement. Three years later, she participated in the. Aaron Douglas was an African American painter and graphic artist who played a leading role in the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s. His first major commission, to illustrate Alain LeRoy. Claude McKay, born Festus Claudius McKay in Sunny Ville, Jamaica in 1889, was a key figure in the Harlem Renaissance, a prominent literary movement of the 1920s. His work ranged from vernacular verse celebrating peasant life in Jamaica to poems that protested racial and economic inequities. His philosophically ambitious fiction, including tales of Black life in both Jamaica and America. For example, the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the so-called Indian New Deal, was a radical shift in federal policy. It was a genuine effort to honor native sovereignty, improve reservation lands, promote artisan crafts, and build schools for native children

Harlem Renaissance ushered in new era of black - USA TODA

The Civilian Conservation Corps, a New Deal recovery and relief program provided more than a quarter of a million young black men with jobs during the Depression. By examining primary source documents students analyze the impact of this program on race relations in America and assess the role played by the New Deal in changing them How did technology (video) and social media (Twitter, Instagram, Tumblr, Facebook) help to enable the Black Lives Matter movement? How did the three people highlighted become activists? What does Zellie Imani mean when he says, We don't rely on the mass media. We rely on ourselves. What did you learn from the video

The New Negro US History II (American Yawp

Du Bois became the first person in his extended family to attend high school, and did so at his mother's insistence. In 1883, Du Bois began to write articles for papers like the New York Globe. Niagara Movement (1905-1909) The Niagara Movement was a civil rights group organized by W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe Trotter in 1905. After being denied admittance to hotels in Buffalo, New York, the group of 29 business owners, teachers, and clergy who comprised the initial meeting gathered at Niagara Falls, from which the group's name derives The National Negro Health movement begins to offer services to Black communities, serving and including health workers and many Black women. April 7: Billie Holiday is born as Eleanora Fagan. She will become a popular and tragic figure in jazz , a gifted singer with an amazing voice and talent but with a chaotic and troubled life who will die. There will be a discussion group meeting on the Harlem Renaissance on Monday, September 14, 2009.The Harlem Renaissance is the name of a well celebrated artistic resurgence of African-American art and literature in the 1920s. However, the Harlem Renaissance also involved the flourishing of a new political consciousness among African-Americans Like many artists practicing in Harlem, Douglas was a member of the Harlem Artists Guild.Established by sculptor Augusta Savage, multidisciplinary artist Charles Alston, and muralist Elba Lightfoot in 1935, the Harlem Artists Guild was an organization intended to advocate for the neighborhood's African American artists.. Though the guild only lasted a few years (it ended in 1941), it achieved.

How World War I sparked the artistic movement that

The Sounds of Struggle. Sixty years ago, a pathbreaking jazz album from Max Roach, Abbey Lincoln, and Oscar Brown, Jr., fused politics and art in the fight for Black liberation. Today many Black artists—women at the forefront—are taking similar strides. The pioneering jazz album We Insist!, released by Candid in 1960, with cover designed by. Winner of the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for Biography Winner of the 2018 National Book Award for Nonfiction A tiny, fastidiously dressed man emerged from Black Philadelphia around the turn of the century to mentor a generation of young artists including Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Jacob Lawrence and call them the New Negro -- the creative African Americans whose art, literature, music, an The methodologies of what came to be called New Criticism in the US had a rigor and meticulousness that acted as ballast to the playfulness and apparent randomness of much of the new American art. Yet the way in which these new ideas were imported into American intellectual life was itself highly political