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Abstract Introduction: Cerebral punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements (PCGE) correspond to opacification of small vessel lumen or its perivascular areas in case of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We will discuss the possible causes of intra-parenchymal central nervous system PCGE Brain MRI demonstrated confluent white matter changes with punctate, perivascular gadolinium enhancement. Spine MRI showed increased signal intensity with punctate enhancement FLAIR is an MRI technique used to null the effect of fluid on solid structures. This is usually done on neurological imaging. Punctate refers to small spots, while enhancement refers to increased signal on the imaging. Small vessel ischaemic disease refers to reduces blood supply of a region due to disease of small blood vessels Cerebral punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements (PCGE) correspond to opacification of small vessel lumen or its perivascular areas in case of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption

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Punctate foci lesions found in the brain, however, can be a sign of possible multiple sclerosis. These lesions are seen during an MRI scan of the brain and show up as pinpoint lesions within the white matter. They may also be seen in the spinal cord and other areas of the central nervous system Punctate foci are 'lesions' on the brain, typically caused by unknown trauma to the brain or conditions where demyelination of brain tissue occurs. Punctate foci are identified by brain MRI, with.

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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are lesions in the brain that show up as areas of increased brightness when visualised by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). WMH's are also referred to as Leukoaraiosis and are often found in CT or MRI's of older patients Report. As our daughters docs explained it to us, enhancement refers to the tumor's ability to absorb the contrast die that they use during the test (I believe this has to do with the density of the tumor). Our daughter has optic glioma (really thick in left eye) in both eyes and the chiasm Whenever the location of this demyelination or high signal intensity is stated to be in the centrum semiovale and it is in both hemispheres as stated in the report then, the most likely causes seem to be involving things such as smoking history, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetic complications. Other things can also be considered. The difference between enhancing an non-enhancing is very pronounced in brain tissue, where the blood-brain barrier effectively hinders Gd-based contrast agent from accumulating in the tissue in.

To our knowledge, only one previously published report has addressed this miliary enhancement pattern of small vessel lumen or its perivascular areas in case of blood-brain barrier disruption [ 2 ], describing punctate and linear enhancing brain lesions within three different pathological conditions a few scattered punctate foci of increased t2/flair signal of the supratentorial white matter which is nonspecific meaning? Dr. Austina Cho answered 26 years experience Psychiatry See below: It means you may have tiny lesions in white matter where nerve fibers extend away from nerve cells

Punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancing lesions in

  1. enhancement pattern can be uniform, punctate, or ring-enhancing, but it is usually intense delayed sequences may show additional lesions, therefore contrast-enhanced MR is the current standard for small metastases detectio
  2. Particular features of the focal lesions on MR images (number, size, location, presence or lack of edema, reaction to contrast medium, evolution in time), as well as accompanying features (atrophy of particular brain structures, postcontrast enhancement of leptomeninges, coexistence of diffuse lesions, coexistence of spinal lesions) are the.
  3. Intra-axial ring-enhancing lesions are one of the most important imaging patterns in brain pathology; frequently, it is reduced to the basic question neoplasm versus infection, but important exceptions exist (demyelinating pathology, radionecrosis, subacute hematoma and subacute infarction) [ 2 ]
  4. Although radiologic findings in LG of the brain are quite variable, the presence of multiple punctate or linear enhancements that reside along the perivascular space on MR imaging suggests LG or other diseases affecting the vascular wall or perivascular space, such as sarcoidosis, primary angiitis of the central nervous system, and other granulomatous angiitis
  5. A ring-enhancing lesion in the left cerebellum has decreased from 2 mm to punctate, marked on series 4, image 88. A small amount of perilesional edema has improved. The ventricles are normal in size and within the midline. Intracranial vascular flow voids are maintained
  6. i have had a mri for migraines what does the results mean multiple punctate t2 hypertintense foci in subcortical white matter bilaterally? Answered by Dr. Jeffrey Oppenheimer: No worries: These are areas of subclinical (non-symptomatic) strokes..

Punctate enhancement in a patient with neurosarcoidosis: a

  1. Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare CNS inflammatory disorder involving the pons and other parts of the brainstem
  2. Contrast material-enanced T1-weighted images (Fig 3) showed numerous punctate foci of enhancement involving the brain stem, middle cerebellar peduncles, and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres distributed in a perivascular pattern. There was no evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement. Distribution of lesions was almost symmetrical
  3. Causes. There are several causes of white spots on a brain MRI, including small strokes, migraines, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, B12 deficiency, a brain tumor such as lymphoma, or an infection such as Lyme disease or HIV. 1 . Sometimes the white matter hyperintensities can resolve, as with a treated infection or brain tumor

There is punctate enhancement in the basal nuclei. This is seen in sarcoid and can also be seen in SLE or other vasculitis. Typical for sarcoid in this case is the leptomeningeal enhancement (yellow arrow). This is the result of granulomatous inflammation of the leptomeninges Dr. Caplan : Hello there - Literally, this means that the area of brain imaging under report is showing several (typically not more than a dozen) very fine (punctate as in, punctuation points) locations of darker exposure, which to the reading radiologist, suggests old blood Brain lesions are typically a symptom of this disease. Tumors are also a cause of brain lesions and abnormal growth of brain cells. What are the symptoms of brain lesions? Symptoms of brain lesions vary depending on the type of lesion, its extent, and where it is found. Everyone is different and symptoms will vary in individual cases Several punctate lesions of the white matter of parietal lobes bilaterally. There all are characterized by increased signal intensity on T2 weighted sequences and are either hypointense or isodense on T1 weighted sequences and show no contrast enhancement

Other red flags include punctate or miliary enhancement (seen in CLIPPERS, vasculitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Susac syndrome), band-like enhancement (Baló's concentric sclerosis), cloud-like enhancement (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders), purely cortical enhancement (subacute ischaemia) or patchy and persistent. According to the radiological definitions, punctate gadolinium enhancement (Gd+) is a dot-like enhancement with a diameter less than 3 mm, nodular Gd+ is a round homogeneous enhancement with a diameter ranging from 3 mm to 9 mm, and large Gd+ has a diameter greater than 9 mm.11 19 Patchy (ie, cloudy) Gd+ is an ill-delimited enhancement. Brain. Non-mass enhancement can be termed homogeneous and heterogeneous, just as mass enhancement can. As mentioned earlier, punctate enhancement is usually benign, but it can occur focally. In that case there is a 25% chance of cancer. Clumped enhancement is the most important non-mass enhancing pattern to recognize BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemic invasive aspergillosis involves the brain through hematogenous dissemination. A retrospective review of 18 patients with aspergillosis involving the brain was performed in order to present imaging findings and thereby broaden the understanding of the distribution and imaging characteristics of brain Aspergillus infection and to facilitate its early diagnosis Introduction: Cerebral punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements (PCGE) correspond to opacification of small vessel lumen or its perivascular areas in case of blood-brain barrier (BBB.

hyperintense punctate images the white matter The presence of a few hyperintense punctate foci in the cerebral white matter at MRI is a very common finding that can be regarded as insignificant in most of the cases. These bright dots, considered as normal, can be a manifestation of dilated perivascular spaces or small gliotic or lacunar. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery findings on admission showed bilateral asymmetric high intensity with partial mild swelling on white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem (figure 1A, B). Enhanced MRI detected punctate and curvilinear enhancement suggestive of perivascular infiltration and nodular enhancement. Hi, Infarct means that an area of the brain has lost its blood supply, and has died out. In your case, it is described as 'small punctate lacunar', this means that only a very small area of the brain which has been affected. Infarcts in the Internal Capsule would cause you weaknes of the opposite side Post-Gadolinium, there are no enhancing masses. No hydrocephalus. The major intracranial vascular flow voids are present. There is abnormal signal on diffusion-weighted imaging. There are scattered punctate foci of increased FLAIR signal in the periventricular white matter which is nonspecific. None of these lesions show enhancement 1. A punctate metastasis in the right inferior parietal lobe on series 4, image 184 was present on 04/02/2019 and is stable. The lesion is not identified on the gamma knife planning study from 01/14/2019. 2. A second punctate focus of enhancement in the left superior occipital lobe is marked on series 4, image 176 and series 401, image 135

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Demyelinating plaques may have mild mass effect as well as contrast enhancement, thus mimicking a neoplasm. The majority of spinal cord MS lesions (70% to 80%) will have associated plaques in the brain. In the setting of a cord lesion, performing an MR scan of the head may confirm the diagnosis, thus avoiding a spinal cord biopsy (see Chapter 10) Brain tuberculosis or fungal infections can also have ring-like enhancing lesions but rarely with hemorrhage. In conclusion, MRI characteristics of pediatric cerebral paragonimiasis mainly include multiple hemorrhage lesions, ring-like enhancements and the tunnel sign, as well as small lesions surrounded by extensively vasogenic edema

Characteristic pontine-predominant MRI characteristics ofNew Developments in Susac's Syndrome | ACNR | Online

What Are Punctate Foci? - Reference

MRI brain shows a few non-specific white matter lesions scattered in the brain. In this case the most likely diagnosis is migraine headaches. 3. A 75-year-old woman with complaints of memory impairment. MRI brain shows white matter lesions scattered diffusely in the frontal and temporal lobes Imaging studies showed multiple punctate enhancing lesions involving the brainstem. After initiation of corticosteroids his symptoms improved, with a decrease in size of his lesions 6-months after.

The brain lesions affect the child's ability to move, which can also make communication and related skills difficult. However, many children with cerebral palsy have normal intellectual functioning Note the linear enhancement in the sulci and brain surface of the right frontal and temporal lobes suggestive of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. The cancer was proven by cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Precontrast- and postcontrast-enhanced CT of a patient with breast cancer. Linear enhancement in the anterior falx and medial sulci of both frontal.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) lesions on T2/FLAIR brain MRI are frequently seen in healthy elderly people. Whether these radiological lesions correspond to irreversible histological changes is still a matter of debate. We report the radiologic-histopathologic concordance between T2/FLAIR WMHs and neuropathologically confirmed demyelination in the periventricular, perivascular and deep. A focus is a tiny punctate enhancement that is non-specific and too small to be characterized. A focus is clearly not a space-occupying lesion or mass and is smaller than 5 mm . Figure 1. Non-specific foci of enhancement - unchanged on follow-up scans. Shape/margin show characteristic patterns of enhancement. Neoplastic Lesions Glioma Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, classified histologically as World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, with a median survival time of 14 months. Tumors can involve both cerebral hemispheres, wit MRI white matter lesions Many times I get consulted by patients or their relatives when their MRI brain report reads multiple scattered white matter lesions seen. The radiologist's report usually further reads that these can be seen in primary demyelinating conditions like multiple sclerosis or in vascular disorders. Patient's and caregivers are naturally worried when the

Brain MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of intracerebral metastases. On MRI, intracerebral metastases are characterized by iso- to hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense portion on T2-weighted imaging. On contrast administration, intense enhancement is observed (uniform, punctate, or ring-enhancing) The lack of enhancement and mass effect can act as features differentiating this entity from others such as lymphoma or glioblastoma (Fig. 6A, 6B). View larger version (145K) Fig. 6A. — 44-year-old man with HIV presented with behavioral changes and facial droop caused by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Magnetic resonance imaging of lymphomatoid granulomatosis: punctate and linear enhancement preceding hemorrhage. Miura H(1), Shimamura H, Tsuchiya K, Hatao E, Kusama H, Matsuoka T. Author information: (1)Fifth Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 3-20-1, Chuo, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaraki 300-0395, Japan. hmiura@tokyo-med.ac.j

Brain lesions can be classified into following types depending on the nature of insult: Lesions due to aging. Aging is an inevitable process. It affects all parts of the body and human brain is no exception. Under normal conditions total number of cells that die are replaced by new cells and equilibrium is maintained this way. But as a person. Gyriform or patchy enhancement may also be seen at this stage secondary to blood-brain barrier breakdown. In chronic stages, encephalomalacia and gliosis develop (Figure 3) with gyriform T1 hyperintensity indicating cortical laminar necrosis. Petechial hemorrhage appears as punctate foci of hemorrhage within the cortex or basal ganglia. Symptoms. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) may exist without apparent symptoms. Obvious symptoms tend to occur when recurrent episodes of bleeding or blood clot formation lead either to seizures, for upper lobe CCMs, or to focal or vision issues, for CCMs in the brainstem, basal ganglia and spinal cord Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a clinically and radiographically distinct inflammatory syndrome affecting multiple structures of the brain, including the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The clinical presentation can be variable, including ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, dysphagia, and other subacute brainstem, cranial. The process tends to spare the deep white matter tracts, brain stem, and cerebellum. Enhancement or mass effect are seen only in the most severe cases. Long term follow-up often shows some brain atrophy, and in children treated for cancer, cerebral calcification is commonly found. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrom

• MRI shows punctate or curvilinear gadolinium enhancement in the pons and adjacent cerebellum. Lesions may extend into the basal ganglia or the cervico-thoracal medulla. • Neuropathological examination of affected regions shows a perivascular lymphocytic inflammation that may involve both white and grey matter, with a CD4+ T cell predominance A 40-year-old male was admitted for 1-week-long unconsciousness. Brain MRI revealed a rim-enhanced mass within the corpus callosum body. Central nervous system demyelinating disease was suspected. Empirical corticosteroid treatment led to some improvement, but his condition deteriorated 2 months later. Brain MRI revealed punctate new foci MR scan of brain showed multiple areas of 'punctate' and 'curvilinear' gadolinium enhancement 'peppering' the pons, with spread into the cerebellum ( figure 1 ), the hallmark features of CLIPPERS syndrome (chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids). 1. Jessica Susan Reuter Injuries to the white matter typically appear as lesions that may look like tears, plaques or abnormal structures. Subcortical white matter, often simply called white matter, is a region inside the brain that has a high concentration of nerve fibers. These fibers are coated with a protein called myelin, which assists in transmission of electrical impulses down the fibers

What are punctate foci? - Answer

G93.89 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM G93.89 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of G93.89 - other international versions of ICD-10 G93.89 may differ. Applicable To The role of diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22:1081-1088. Moritani T, Smoker WRK, Sato Y, et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging of acute excitotoxic brain injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005; 26:216-228. Schaefer PW, Grant PE, Gonzalez RG. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Radiology. Enhancing punctate lesions are also present in corona radiata on both sides. FLAIR sequence showing corresponding white matter lesions that however present no significant oedema. Findings represent CLIPPERS - Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids MRI of the brain demonstrated T2 prolongation in the pons with extension into the cerebral peduncles, with multiple areas of curvilinear and punctate contrast enhancement . MRI of the spine revealed multifocal, patchy T2 signal abnormality throughout the thoracic cord and conus ( figure ) Background . Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions). <i>Summary</i>

All variants of porokertaosis, except punctate, are prone to malignant transformation; for example, into Bowen's disease, SCC, and rarely basal cell carcinoma, the risk of which varies from 7.5 to 11.6% (1, 10) Hyperintensity is a term used in MRI reports to describe how part of an image looks on MRI scan. Most MRIs are in black/white with shades of gray. A hyperintensity is an area that appears lighter. Paraphrasing W.B. Matthews about 'dizziness,' there can be few physicians so dedicated to their art that they do not experience a slight decline in spirits when they learn that a patient's brain MRI shows nonspecific white matter T2-hyperintense lesions compatible with microvascular disease, demyelination, migraine, or other causes. 1 The situation is particularly vexing if the patient. (a) Sagittal T2/FLAIR, (b) sagittal, and (c) coronal T1 weighted MRI after IV gadolinium based contrast medium injection, of the brain, showing white matter ill-defined faint bright intensity (arrows in (a)) and characteristic punctate and linear enhancement in white matter and basal ganglia (arrows in (b) and (c)), respectively Brain and skin involvement in . Erdheim-Chester disease. Brain involvement occurs in up to half of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease . Brain involvement may manifest radiographically as pontine or cerebellar T2-hyperintensity. Multifocal punctate enhancement has also been reported. Skin involvement is observed in ~25% of patient

White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI - Artefact or

Coronal T1 postgadolinium images (B) showed enhancement of the orbital segment of the right optic nerve in a perineural pattern (arrow). On axial T1 postcontrast images, multiple punctate areas of enhancement were present in the brainstem (C) and brain parenchyma (D) G93.9 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM G93.9 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of G93.9 - other international versions of ICD-10 G93.9 may differ. The following code (s) above G93.9 contain annotation. Register now at EDUCARE platform to learn more on SCS to treat Chronic Neuropathic Pain

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What does centrum semiovale hyperintensities on MRI indicate

What are the differences between enhancing and

Brain miliary enhancement SpringerLin

Basal ganglia calcification is a very rare condition that happens when calcium builds up in your brain, usually in the basal ganglia, the part of your brain that helps control movement. Other. Axial T1-weighted post contrast image (D) reveals numerous punctate foci of enhancement corresponding to the deep and periventricular white matter lesions (white arrows). In this patient, the differential diagnosis included intravascular lymphoma, granulomatous disease, neurosarcoidosis, and vasculitis culent, punctate regions of sclerosis in a rings and arcs pattern. Patients with enchondromas are typically in their third through fi fth decades of life, although this lesion can be detected at any age.4 Although these patients are usually asymptomatic, they may present with pain if there is a path-ologic fracture Brain lesions: A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue Enhancement was divided into parenchymal and meningeal. Parenchymal enhancement was categorized as no enhancement, solid, ringlike, nodular, punctate, or linear. Nodular enhancements were defined as round enhancements 3-9 mm in diameter; punctate enhancements, as dotlike enhancements <3 mm in diameter

Lacunar infarcts are small infarcts in the deeper parts of the brain (basal ganglia, thalamus, white matter) and in the brain stem. They are responsible for about 20 percent of all strokes. They are caused by occlusion of deep penetrating branches of major cerebral arteries and are particularly common in hypertension and diabetes, which are associated with severe atherosclerosis of small. 12 enhancing lesions and 3 vascular abnormalities identified on MR angiography. The 3-sequence set did not reveal microhemorrhagic foci in 15 of 19 studies. There were 117 major findings in 499 studies in group 2 with 19 not identified on the 4-sequence set: 17 enhancing lesions and 2 vascular lesions identified on angiography White matter disease, or leukoaraiosis, involves the degeneration of the brain's white matter. White matter disease usually occurs due to aging, but it can also affect young people. Learn more here Yuan YQ, Hou M, Wu H, Wang F. A meningioma with peripheral rim enhancement on MRI. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2012 Oct. 29(4):235-9. . Yamada S, Taoka T, Nakagawa I, Nishimura F, Motoyama Y, Park YS, et al. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique to Evaluate Tumor-Brain Adhesion in Meningioma: Brain-Surface Motion Imaging. World Neurosurg. 2013 Feb 9

• Multiple punctate microhemorrhages in juxtacortical and callosal white matter (in 7 of 11 patients). Figure 1 from the Radiology article. Brain MRI in two critically ill COVID-19 patients with persistently depressed mental status including a 56-year old man (A-C), and a 64-year old man (D-F) MRI Results - Possible brain Met. Hello. I am a Stage IV patient and just had a brain MRI this week and the results say, There is a minimal punctate focus of enhancement along the high anterior right frontal lobe. This measures 2 to 3 mm in maximal size and is on the cortical surface. This is a new finding when compared with the previous. Resolving abscess • Hyperintense on T2WI, FLAIR; hypointense rim resolves • Small ring/punctate enhancing focus may persist for months Complication of Brain Abscess • Formation of satellite lesions • Ventriculitis • Choroid plexitis • Purulent leptomeningitis 19

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Hemosiderin - The Trace of a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. By Gordon Johnson. Call me at 800-992-9447. Hemosiderin is essentially a blood stain, on human tissue. In context of mild traumatic brain injury, hemosiderin is a blood stain on brain tissue. One area where there is a major advantage in a tailored protocol, (see previous page) is in the area of hemosiderin staining Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain on day 15 of the illness showed multiple punctate areas of enhancement in the basal ganglia, periventricular white matter, and along the posterior parietal cortex predominantly on the right. The circle of Willis magnetic resonance angiography was normal The absence of isolated punctate enhancement and persistent enhancement over many years despite aggressive immunotherapy is atypical for CLIPPERS, at least in adults. The area of T2-hyperintensity in Case 2 is significantly greater than the areas of enhancement Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS). In most cases, gliosis involves the proliferation or hypertrophy of several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.In its most extreme form, the proliferation associated with gliosis leads to the formation of a glial scar

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A developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is an unusual or irregular arrangement of small veins that may look like the spokes of a wheel. The veins drain into a larger central vein. DVAs are benign (not cancerous). DVAs also may be called venous angiomas or benign variations in venous drainage. Some doctors refer to them as caput medusae, a Latin. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A brain biopsy revealed perivascular CD3-positive T cell infiltration around the small vessels The brain is responsible for regulation the functions of the body, from the unconscious (controlling blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) to the conscious acts like walking and talking. Add the intellectual processes of thought and the brain is a busy part of the human body.. The brain has many parts A hyperintensity or T2 hyperintensity is an area of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain of a human or of another mammal that reflect lesions produced largely by demyelination and axonal loss. These small regions of high intensity are observed on T2 weighted MRI images (typically created using 3D FLAIR) within cerebral white matter (white matter. The typical appearance of brain abscess on MRI is a ring-enhancing lesion that is T2-hyperintense with low or intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) (Figure 4). Central restricted diffusion is often present on DWI with corresponding low ADC values. Research suggests that DWI may be more sensitive than conventional MR when. Frontal Lobe Lesions. The frontal lobe includes the motor cortex (areas 4, 6, 8, 44), the prefrontal cortex (areas 9-12 and 45-47), and the cingulate gyrus (p. 144). It is responsible for the planning, monitoring, and performance of motor, cognitive, and emotional functions (executive functions). Frontal lobe syndromes may be due to either.